Engineering Fundamentals: Kirchhoff’s Laws

Closeup of working on a circuit board

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws are at the center of circuit analysis. With them, we have the fundamental tool set we need to start studying circuits and the formulas for individual components such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. Named after German physicist Gustav Kirchhoff (1824-1887), Kirchhoff’s Laws are electromagnetic approximations derived from Maxwell’s Equations. Simply put, they are applicable when the size of the components in a circuit are substantially smaller than the wavelength of the signals traveling through the circuit.

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Engineering Fundamentals: Ohm’s Law

Closeup of dark circuit board

Ohm’s Law, discovered by Georg Simon Ohm and first published in 1827, is the earliest and arguably most important connection between current, voltage, and resistance. A straightforward and practical technique for studying electric circuits, Ohm’s Law is very commonly used and has been documented on a broad range of scales. For aspiring electrical engineers studying the basics or for seasoned professionals looking to refresh their knowledge, this scientific law is worth having a deep understanding of.

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