Last week, we published a blog post going over the tools and methods used to measure electrical voltage in various situations. This week, we are taking a look at tests for measuring electrical currents- an essential step in electronic equipment maintenance that can identify the root cause of any failures and malfunctions. We will look at how to use ammeters, the importance of wire size, and how to test currents in power lines, heater motors, and air conditioners.Continue reading “Methods For Measuring Currents”
1 + 1 = 1. While this statement would be false when discussing the real numbers of ordinary algebraic concepts, It makes perfect sense in the context of Boolean Algebra. This mathematical concept is most practically applied when simplifying logic circuits. When the function of a logic circuit can be translated into Boolean form, then the resulting equation can be simplified by applying certain algebraic rules- allowing a circuit with fewer components to perform the same function.Continue reading “Simplifying Circuits with Boolean Algebra”
RAM, ROM, GPU, CPU. Each of these terms are familiar to anyone who has spent time researching the components necessary to build their own computer. For the casual user, however, these similar acronyms can raise more questions than they answer. What is the difference between them? This post will give a brief and easily digestible overviews for four of the biggest categories of chips used in manufacturing today; memory chips, microprocessors, GPUs, and CICs.
“Cut the red wire!” This is a familiar line to any fan of high-stakes action movies like Lethal Weapon. In the movies, characters hoping to diffuse a bomb before it’s too late are faced with a dilemma- what color wire do they cut? While the answer to that question may depend on the film- the difference in color coded wires has real life consequences. How does a color coded system improve electrical safety? Are all color coding systems still used today? Most importantly- what do all of these different colors mean?
Before the modern digital technology we use in computers today, electronic computations were conducted by utilizing both voltages and currents as representations of numerical values. This process needed circuitry capable of carrying out a wide range of analog signal processing tasks, which led to the use of operational amplifiers (often referred to as op-amps). The engineering concept of negative feedback, which forms the basis of practically all automatic control procedures, holds the key to the utility of these tiny circuits.
Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws are at the center of circuit analysis. With them, we have the fundamental tool set we need to start studying circuits and the formulas for individual components such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. Named after German physicist Gustav Kirchhoff (1824-1887), Kirchhoff’s Laws are electromagnetic approximations derived from Maxwell’s Equations. Simply put, they are applicable when the size of the components in a circuit are substantially smaller than the wavelength of the signals traveling through the circuit.
Ohm’s Law, discovered by Georg Simon Ohm and first published in 1827, is the earliest and arguably most important connection between current, voltage, and resistance. A straightforward and practical technique for studying electric circuits, Ohm’s Law is very commonly used and has been documented on a broad range of scales. For aspiring electrical engineers studying the basics or for seasoned professionals looking to refresh their knowledge, this scientific law is worth having a deep understanding of.
For circuit operation, the variations between de and ac functions are not too dissimilar. For de signal voltages, the individual stages of the instrument are directly coupled. Direct coupling can also be used for ac voltage signals, but typically capacitors are used to pass only the ac signal voltages from one stage to another. The test indications for ac must be handled slightly differently because of the nature of ac waveforms and the different ways of describing their levels. One ac wave has average, effective (RMS), and peak values. The analog meter movement responds to the average ac value, but we all use the effective or RMS value to describe a waveform, such as 120-V ac line power. The ac meter is calibrated for the effective value, even though it reacts to the average value.
The purpose of the integrator and gate circuits is to pass on the number of pulses that match the test voltage being measured. Since a specific pulse frequency stream is being applied to the gate, the test voltage must somehow control how long the gate will be allowed to pass the pulses; the higher the test voltage, the longer the gate will be open, and the more pulses will be passed through- and the number of pulses will represent the digitized version of the analog test voltage.
Input Networks and Amplifiers
The input network and amplifier perform the same functions as they do for the electronic analog meter. The input network presents a high resistance (11 megohms) to the circuit under test to keep from loading it down; it also attenuates the input voltage with the range switch setting to keep the test signal at the input of the amplifier under 1 volt. Although identical input and amplifier circuits can be used for both digital and analog meters, the example we are using demonstrates the use of an amplifier that can take up to 1 volt of input, and the ranges vary from 2 volts to 2000 volts, in multiplier ranges of 2, 20, 200, and 2000 volts. Since digital measurements use ten digits (0- 9), the counters, and especially the pulse generators deal in multiples of ten for convenience. The follower and amplifier circuits are both op-amps connected to accomplish their functions.